Onward to Episode 008 - The Middle Kingdom Mariners where we'll cover the maritime connections of Egypt during the Middle Kingdom period. An inscription left by an explorer named Hannu will help us get a grasp on the reopening of trade in the Red Sea, and a literary narrative called The Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor will help us understand the Middle Kingdom mindset as related to the sea. Other topics include the debate about when the Canal of the Pharaohs was finished, the physical evidence of funerary boats found outside a pyramid at Dashur, and a few other scattered topics of note.
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- Arnold, Dorothea, Amenemhet I and the Early Twelfth Dynasty at Thebes, Metropolitan Museum J., Vol. 26 (1991).
- Casson, Lionel, The Ancient Mariners: Seafarers and Sea Fighters of the Mediterranean in Ancient Times (1959).
- Funeral Boat Setting out under Sail, Metropolitan Museum of Art. [link]
- García, Juan Carlos Moreno, ed., Ancient Egyptian Administration (2013).
- Hannu Inscription at Hammamat, from James Henry Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol. 1 (1906). [link]
- Herodotus, The Histories, (Macaulay's English translation, republished 2004).
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- McGrail, Seán, Boats of the World: From the Stone Age to Medieval Times (2009).
- Paine, Lincoln, The Sea and Civilization: A Maritime History of the World (2013).
- Sporting Boat, The Metropolitan Museum of Art. [link]
- Strabo, Geographica, 17.1.25. [link]
- The Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor. [link]
- Wilkinson, Toby, The Rise and Fall of Ancient Egypt (2010).